Tuesday, September 23, 2008


Phobia is defined as irrational and excessive fear of an object or situation. In most cases, the phobia involves a sense of endangerment or a fear of harm. There are many symptoms of phobia such as dizziness, breathlessness, nausea, and a sense of unreality and fear of dying. There are three types of phobias categorized as social phobias, agoraphobias and specific phobias. There are a number of treatment approaches for phobias. The effectiveness of a treatment depends on the individual and the type of phobia. Two examples of potential phobia treatments are exposure and counter-conditioning treatment.
SOURCE:Edmund J. Bourne, The Anxiety & Phobia Workbook, 4th ed, New Harbinger Publications, 2005


Recently I have been reading a lot on global warming as my case study requires me to do so. I am very much attracted to the fact that there have been some early signs showing us that Mother Nature is actually being heated up in terms of global warming. Some of the signs are heat waves, periods of unusual warming, ocean warming, sea level rise, coastal flooding and glaciers melting. The following events such as spreading of disease, earlier spring arrival, plant and animal range shift and population changes, coral reef bleaching, downpours, heavy snowfalls, flooding, drought and fires are the types of impacts that are likely to become more frequent and widespread with continued warming.

Sunday, September 21, 2008


Today, plastic surgery has advanced with new techniques and technology but there are still some complications that can arise even though it is rare, not only from the surgery itself but also from the anesthetics and mistakes on part of the physician themselves. So, if you are opting for plastic surgery you should be aware and understand the dangers that can happen with plastic surgery.Dangers that have been known to occur with plastic surgery are a broad range from scarring to even fatality in rare cases. Dangers of cosmetic surgery vary from patient to patient. Any complications that occur often are physically and psychologically distressing to patients.The most common danger of plastic surgery is scarring. All surgeries will have a small type of scarring. But in plastic surgery the incisions are usually hidden under the crease of the breast in breast augmentation or in the hairline when the plastic surgery if facial. Even though, there are scars that cannot usually be seen. Facial complications are also the hardest to repair including scarring that may occur or from mistakes by the physician. Other dangers of plastic surgery are blood clots, infection and bleeding. As long as close monitoring after surgery is done these types of dangers can be noticed early and dealt with immediately. By monitoring after surgery, such as checking for fever often, can show the sign of an infection long before it becomes a major problem. With the proper post surgery care these dangers are reduced.Nerve damage is always a possible with different types of surgery and is also a danger of plastic surgery. Some people have experienced problems moving muscles in the area where the surgery was performed or have lost feeling in the area that was operated on after plastic surgery. Usually, this is only temporary and feeling should return shortly after plastic surgery.
Fraser, Suzanne (2003). Cosmetic surgery, gender and culture


Ramayana is an epic about Rama (symbol of goodness). It is about how someone should lead their life and how a leader should rule the country. Long ago, there lived a king named Dasaratha who ruled in a country called Ayodhya. King Dasaratha had three wives but none of them could conceive. Therefore, the king held a prayers (‘yagna’). He benefited from the prayers and was blessed with four princes. All his sons were raised to become warriors. Two of his sons – Rama and Laxman were sent to kill an evil lady. After that incident, Rama was given a task and when he succeeded, he got married to Princess Sita. Rama, Laxman and Sita were sent to the jungle for fourteen years. Throughout these years, they faced many obstacles. Finally Rama returned to his country after those troublesome years and ruled his country.


This is a story written by Lee Su Ann. In this story, Azreen takes time off her studies in London to return to her village to mourn for sister- Madhuri’s lost. She was surprised to know that her sister did not die in an accident but instead was murdered. She will soon investigate what did actually take place. She overheard Puan Normala and before they knew, they were all cursed.